Brain Res. 2014 Jan 28;1544:33-44. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.11.028. Epub 2013 Dec 7.
Combined treatment with acupuncture reduces effective dose and alleviates adverse effect of l-dopa by normalizing Parkinson's disease-induced neurochemical imbalance.




Int Rev Neurobiol. 2013;111:141-58. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-411545-3.00007-9.
Current development of acupuncture research in Parkinson's disease.
Zeng BY, Salvage S, Jenner P.




PLoS One. 2013 May 30;8(5):e64403. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064403. Print 2013.
Electro-acupuncture stimulation improves spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity in MPTP intoxicated mice.
Wang H1, Liang X, Wang X, Luo D, Jia J, Wang X.





Laser Acupuncture at HT7 Acupoint Improves Cognitive Deficit, Neuronal Loss, Oxidative Stress, and Functions of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:937601. Epub 2014 Aug 5.
2014 Sep 15;14:336. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-336.
Acupuncture on GB34 activates the precentral gyrus and prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease.
Yeo S, Choe IH, van den Noort M, Bosch P, Jahng GH, Rosen B, Kim SH, Lim S1.


BMC Complement Altern Med.
2016 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies.
Kwon S1, Seo BK2, Kim S3.
Author information
Chin J Integr Med.








Brain Res.
2014 Jan 28;1544:33-44. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.11.028. Epub 2013 Dec 7.
Combined treatment with acupuncture reduces effective dose and alleviates adverse effect of l-dopa by normalizing Parkinson's disease-induced neurochemical imbalance.
Kim SN1, Doo AR2, Park JY2, Choo HJ3, Shim I2, Park JJ4, Chae Y1, Lee B5, Lee H1, Park HJ6.
Author information


Abstract
This study first showed the behavioural benefits of novel combination therapy of l-dopa with acupuncture on Parkinson's disease, and its underlying mechanisms within basal ganglia. The previous study reported that acupuncture may improve the motor function of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model by increasing the dopamine efflux and turnover ratio of dopamine. Hence, we hypothesised that combining l-dopa with acupuncture would have a behavioural benefit for those with PD. We performed unilateral injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum of C57Bl/6 mice to model hemi-Parkinsonian attributes. To test motor function and dyskinetic anomalies, we examined cylinder behaviour and abnormal involuntary movement (AIM), respectively. We found that (1) a 50% reduced dose of l-dopa (7.5mg/kg) combined with acupuncture showed an improvement in motor function that was comparable to mice given the standard dose of l-dopa treatment (15mg/kg) only, and that (2) the combination treatment (l-dopa +acupuncture) was significantly superior in reducing AIM scores when equivalent doses of l-dopa were used. The combination treatment also significantly reduces the abnormal increase of GABA contents in the substantia nigra compared to the standard l-dopa treatment. Furthermore, abnormal expression of FosB, the immediate early gene of l-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID), was mitigated in the striatum by the combination treatment. All of these results indicate that acupuncture enhances the benefits of l-dopa on motor function with reduced dose of l-dopa and alleviating LID by normalising neurochemical imbalance within the basal ganglia.
© 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
KEYWORDS:
Acupuncture, FosB, GABA, Levodopa-induced dyskinesia, Parkinson's disease, l-dopa combination treatment





Int Rev Neurobiol. 2013;111:141-58. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-411545-3.00007-9.
Current development of acupuncture research in Parkinson's disease.
Zeng BY, Salvage S, Jenner P.
Author information


Abstract
Parkinson's disease is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms that cause PD are still not fully understood. The available treatments to PD are only symptomatic relief. Acupuncture is used to treat many medical conditions for 1000 years in China and has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession because it has been a very safe and well-tolerated treatment. In this chapter, we reviewed relevant laboratory findings regarding acupuncture mechanism on Parkinson's. We showed that acupuncture stimulation in Parkinson's models had generated valuable mechanistic insight of Parkinson's and showed that acupuncture treatment is in fact a neuroprotective therapy that increase the release of various neuroprotective agents such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and cyclophilin A. In addition, acupuncture therapy slows cell death process and attenuates oxidative stress to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Further, acupuncture therapy modulates neuronal activity of the basal ganglia output structures. These results suggest that early application of acupuncture therapy to Parkinson's patients may be helpful for the best efficacy of acupuncture treatment. It is hopeful that translation of achievement in acupuncture research in Parkinson's models will maximize the potentials of acupuncture treatment.
© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
Acupuncture, Brain imaging, Models, Molecular mechanism, Parkinson's disease









PLoS One. 2013 May 30;8(5):e64403. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064403. Print 2013.
Electro-acupuncture stimulation improves spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity in MPTP intoxicated mice.
Wang H1, Liang X, Wang X, Luo D, Jia J, Wang X.
Author information


Abstract
Bradykinesia is one of the major clinical symptoms of Parkinson`s disease (PD) for which treatment is sought. In most mouse models of PD, decreased locomotor activity can be reflected in an open field behavioral test. Therefore the open field test provides a useful tool to study the clinic symptoms of PD patients. Our previous work demonstrated that 100 Hz electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation at ZUSANLI and SANYINJIAO protected the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system of C57BL/6 mice from MPTP toxicity, indicating that acupuncture might be an effective therapy for PD sufferers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 100 Hz EA stimulation on the spontaneous locomotor activity in MPTP injured mice. Here we found that, in MPTP treated mice, the total movements significantly decreased and the movement time, velocity and distance dramatically increased, although the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system was devastated, revealed by immunohistochemistry and HPLC-ECD. After 12 sessions of 100 Hz EA stimulation, the total movements elevated and the movement time, velocity and distance decreased, in MPTP mice. 100 Hz EA increased striatal dopamine content in MPTP mice by 35.9%, but decreased its striatal dopamine turnover. We assumed that the injury of other regions in the brain, such as the A11 group in diencephalon, might be involved in the hypermotility in MPTP mice. The effects of 100 Hz EA on spontaneous locomotor activity in MPTP mice might not relate with the striatal dopamine, but with its neuroprotective and regulatory effects on motor circuits in the brain. Our study suggests that EA might be a promising treatment for neurological disorders including PD.
PMID: 23737982 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3667805 Free PMC Article



Laser Acupuncture at HT7 Acupoint Improves Cognitive Deficit, Neuronal Loss, Oxidative Stress, and Functions of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Wattanathorn J1, Sutalangka C2.
Author information:
1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand ; Integrative Complementary Alternative Medicine Research and Development Center, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. 2Integrative Complementary Alternative Medicine Research and Development Center, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand ; Department of Physiology, Neuroscience Program, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Abstract
To date, the therapeutic strategy against cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still not in satisfaction level and requires novel effective intervention. Based the oxidative stress reduction and cognitive enhancement induced by laser acupuncture at HT7, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 against cognitive impairment in PD has been focused. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 on memory impairment, oxidative stress status, and the functions of both cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in hippocampus of animal model of PD. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were induced unilateral lesion at right substantianigra by 6-OHDA and were treated with laser acupuncture continuously at a period of 14 days. The results showed that laser acupuncture at HT7 enhanced memory and neuron density in CA3 and dentate gyrus. The decreased AChE, MAO-B, and MDA together with increased GSH-Px in hippocampus of a 6-OHDA lesion rats were also observed. In conclusion, laser acupuncture at HT7 can improve neuron degeneration and memory impairment in animal model of PD partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the improved cholinergic and dopaminergic functions. More researches concerning effect of treatment duration are still required.



BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Sep 15;14:336. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-336.
Acupuncture on GB34 activates the precentral gyrus and prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease.
Yeo S, Choe IH, van den Noort M, Bosch P, Jahng GH, Rosen B, Kim SH, Lim S1.
Author information


Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Acupuncture is increasingly used as an additional treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS:
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, brain activation in response to acupuncture in a group of 12 patients with PD was compared with a group of 12 healthy participants. Acupuncture was conducted on a specific acupoint, the right GB 34 (Yanglingquan), which is a frequently used acupoint for motor function treatment in the oriental medical field.
RESULTS:
Acupuncture stimulation on this acupoint activates the prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, and putamen in patients with PD; areas that are known to be impaired in patients with PD. Compared with healthy participants, patients with PD showed significantly higher brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus, especially visible in the left hemisphere.
CONCLUSIONS:
The neuroimaging results of our study suggest that in future acupuncture research; the prefrontal cortex as well as the precentral gyrus should be treated for symptoms of Parkinson's disease and that GB 34 seems to be a suitable acupoint. Moreover, acupuncture evoked different brain activations in patients with Parkinson's disease than in healthy participants in our study, stressing the importance of conducting acupuncture studies on both healthy participants as well as patients within the same study, in order to detect acupuncture efficacy.



Am J Chin Med. 2015;43(3):407-23. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X15500263.
A clinical study of integrating acupuncture and Western medicine in treating patients with Parkinson's disease.
Chen FP1, Chang CM, Shiu JH, Chiu JH, Wu TP, Yang JL, Kung YY, Chen FJ, Chern CM, Hwang SJ.
Author information


Abstract
Complementary therapy with acupuncture for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been studied for quite a long time, but the effectiveness of the treatment still remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the integrated effects of acupuncture treatment in PD patients who received western medicine. In the short-term acupuncture treatment study, 20 patients received acupuncture therapy twice a week in acupoints DU 20, GB 20, LI 11, LI 10, LI 4, GB 31, ST 32, GB 34 and GB 38 along with western medicine for 18 weeks, and 20 controlled patients received western medicine only. In the long-term acupuncture treatment, 13 patients received acupuncture treatment twice a week for 36 weeks. The outcome parameters include Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-Version 2 (BDI-II), and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL). In the short-term clinical trial, a higher percentage of patients in the acupuncture group had score improvement in UPDRS total scores (55% vs. 15%, p = 0.019), sub-score of mind, behavior and mood (85% vs. 25%, p < 0.001), activity of daily living (65% vs. 15%, p = 0.003), mobility (40% vs. 15%, p = 0.155) and complication of treatment (75% vs. 15%, p < 0.001), BDI-II score (85% vs. 35%, p = 0.003), and WHOQOL score (65% vs. 15%, p = 0.003) when compared to control group at the end of the 18 weeks' follow up. After 36 weeks of long-term acupuncture treatment, the mean UPDRS total scores and sub-score of mentation, behavior and mood, sub-score of complications of therapy and BDI-II score decreased significantly when compared to the pretreatment baseline. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment had integrated effects in reducing symptoms and signs of mind, behavior, mood, complications of therapy and depression in PD patients who received Western medicine.
KEYWORDS:
Acupuncture; Integrative Therapy; Parkinson's Disease; QOL


Chin J Integr Med. 2016 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies.
Kwon S1, Seo BK2, Kim S3.
Author information


Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease caused by dopaminergic cell death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture can be a potential therapy for the treatment of PD, but it is not clear which acupuncture points (acupoints) play major roles in reliving symptoms of PD. Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengfu (GV 16), Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) acupoints have frequently been to investigate the effectiveness and action mechanism of acupuncture for treating PD, but it is not clear why they were selected. This review summarizes the current understanding of the acupoints for PD treatment based on Oriental medicine theories and on the accumulated fifindings from previous animal studies. The results of this study will be useful to development of a strategy for future research in this fifield.

1.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:937601. Epub 2014 Aug 5.