Neurology. 2013 Sep 17;81(12):1102-3. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000435063.25330.55.
Migraine prevention with a supraorbital transcutaneous stimulator: A randomized controlled trial.
Meng FG, Zhang JG, Schoenen J, Vandersmissen B, Herroelen L, Vandenheede M, Gerard P, Magis D.
Source
Beijing, China.
Abstract
Schoenen et al.(1) provided evidence that trigeminal neurostimulation with a supraorbital transcutaneous stimulator (STS) is effective for migraine. STS involves the application of electrodes and stimulator via an invasive surgical procedure that includes expensive medical consumables and possible complications. Only 70.6% of patients are very satisfied or moderately satisfied and approximately 1 out of 5 was not satisfied after STS effective neurostimulation.(1) This means that 20%-30% of patients were dissatisfied with the procedure. Unfortunately, there is no way to preoperatively predict which patients will respond to the stimulation. STS has a sedative effect via a change in CNS activity.(1) Acupuncture (e.g., somatic acupuncture, ear acupuncture, or electroacupuncture) has been successfully used for migraine(2,3) and reduces sympathetic nerve activity.(4) Based on those data, we propose that acupuncture can predict the efficacy of STS: if acupuncture is effective, STS will also be effective. For migraineurs, inexpensive and minimally invasive acupuncture can be performed before the STS. If acupuncture is efficient, STS may also be efficient and worth performing.




Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD002123.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhoea.
Proctor ML1, Smith CA, Farquhar CM, Stones RW.
Author information


Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Dysmenorrhoea is the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of the uterus. Medical therapy for dysmenorrhoea commonly consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the oral contraceptive pill both of which work by reducing myometrial (uterine muscle) activity. However, these treatments are accompanied by a number of side effects, making an effective non-pharmacological method of treating dysmenorrhoea of potential value. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment that has been shown to be effective for pain relief in a variety of conditions. Electrodes are placed on the skin and electric current applied at different pulse rates (frequencies) and intensities is used to stimulate these areas so as to provide pain relief. In dysmenorrhoea. TENS is thought to work by alteration of the body's ability to receive or perceive pain signals rather than by having a direct effect on the uterine contractions. Acupuncture may also be indicated as a useful, non-pharmacological method for treating dysmenorrhoea. Acupuncture is thought to excite receptors or nerve fibres which, through a complicated interaction with mediators such as serotonin and endorphins, blocks pain impulses. Acupuncture typically involves penetration of the skin by fine, solid metallic needles, which are manipulated manually or by electrical stimulation.
OBJECTIVES:
To determine the effectiveness of high and low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture when compared to each other, placebo, no treatment, or medical treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea.
SEARCH STRATEGY:
Electronic searches of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Register of controlled trials, CCTR (Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2001), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Bio extracts, PsycLIT and SPORTDiscus were performed in August 2001 to identify relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Register of controlled trials (CISCOM) was also searched. Attempts were also made to identify trials from the UK National Research Register, the Clinical Trial Register and the citation lists of review articles and included trials. In most cases, the first or corresponding author of each included trial was contacted for additional information.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture that compared these treatments to each other, placebo, no treatment, or medical treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea. Exclusion criteria were: mild, infrequent or secondary dysmenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea associated with an IUD.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Nine RCTs were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review, seven involving TENS, one acupuncture, and one both treatments. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Meta analysis was performed using odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes. Data unsuitable for meta-analysis was reported as descriptive data and was also included for discussion. The outcome measures were pain relief (dichotomous, visual analogue scales, descriptive), adverse effects, use of analgesics additional to treatment and absence from work or school.
MAIN RESULTS:
Overall high frequency TENS was shown to be more effective for pain relief than placebo TENS. Low frequency TENS was found to be no more effective in reducing pain than placebo TENS. There were conflicting results regarding whether high frequency TENS is more effective than low frequency TENS. One small trial showed acupuncture to be significantly more effective for pain relief than both placebo acupuncture and two no treatment control groups.
REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:
High frequency TENS was found to be effective for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea by a number of small trials. The minor adverse effects reported in one trial requires further investigation. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of low frequency TENS in reducing dysmenorrhoea. There is also insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in reducing dysmenorrhoea, however a single small but methodologically sound trial of acupuncture suggests benefit for this modality.




Br J Anaesth. 2014 Feb 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation reduces intra-operative remifentanil consumption and alleviates postoperative side-effects in patients undergoing sinusotomy: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Wang H1, Xie Y, Zhang Q, Xu N, Zhong H, Dong H, Liu L, Jiang T, Wang Q, Xiong L.
Author information


Abstract
BACKGROUND:
/st>Although opioids are widely used as analgesics in general anaesthesia, they have unpleasant side-effects and can delay postoperative recovery. Acupuncture and related techniques are effective for acute and chronic pain, and reduces some side-effects. We assessed the effect of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on intra-operative remifentanil consumption and the incidences of anaesthesia-related side-effects.
METHODS:
/st>Sixty patients undergoing sinusotomy were randomly assigned to TEAS or control group. TEAS consisted of 30 min of stimulation (6-9 mA, 2/10 Hz) on the Hegu (LI4), Neiguan (PC6), and Zusanli (ST36) before anaesthesia. The patients in the control group had the electrodes applied, but received no stimulation. Bispectral index was used to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. Perioperative haemodynamics were recorded, and peripheral blood samples were collected to measure the levels of mediators of surgical stress. The primary end point was intraoperative remifentanil consumption and the secondary endpoints were recovery quality and anaesthesia-related side-effects.
RESULTS:
/st>Patients in the TEAS group required 39% less remifentanil during surgery than controls [0.0907 (sd 0.026) μg kg-1 min-1 vs 0.051 (0.018) μg kg-1 min-1]. There were no differences in intra-operative haemodynamics or surgical stress between groups. However, the time to extubation and recall in the control group was 16.8 (6.8) min and 23.0 (5.0) min, respectively, significantly longer than that in the TEAS group (P<0.01). TEAS also decreased the incidence of dizziness and pruritus within the first 24 h after surgery (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION:
/st>The use of TEAS significantly reduced intra-operative remifentanil consumption and alleviated postoperative side-effects in patients undergoing sinusotomy.Clinical trial registrationThe trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01700855).




Neuroscience. 2014 Mar 19. pii: S0306-4522(14)00232-2. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.03.019. [Epub ahead of print]
Cerebral blood flow-based evidence for mechanisms of low- versus high-frequency transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation analgesia: a perfusion fMRI study in humans.
Jiang Y1, Liu J2, Liu J3, Han J1, Wang X2, Cui C4.
Author information


Abstract
Brain activities in response to acupuncture have been investigated in multiple studies; however, the neuromechanisms of low- and high-frequency transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) analgesia are unclear. This work aimed to investigate how brain activity and the analgesic effect changed across thirty-minute low- versus high-frequency TEAS. Forty-six subjects received 30 min 2 Hz, 100 Hz TEAS or Mock TEAS (MTEAS) treatment on both behavior test and fMRI scan days. On the behavior test day, the pain thresholds and pain-related negative emotional feeling ratings were tested five times - at 4.5 min before treatment, at 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min during treatment and 4.5 min after the treatment. On the fMRI scan day, to match the time-points in the behavioral testing session, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) signals were collected and incorporated with five independent runs before, during and after the treatment, each lasting 4.5 min. The analgesic effect was observed in both the TEAS groups; the analgesic affect was not found in the MTEAS group. The effect started at 20 min during the treatment and was maintained until the after-treatment states. In both TEAS groups, the regional CBF revealed a trend of early activation with later inhibition; also, a positive correlation between analgesia and the regional CBF change was observed in the anterior insula in the early stage, whereas a negative relationship was found in the parahippocampal gyrus in the later stage. The TEAS analgesia was specifically associated with the default mode network and other cortical regions in the 2 Hz TEAS group, ventral striatum and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the 100 Hz TEAS group, respectively. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of low- and high-frequency TEAS analgesia are distinct and partially overlapped, and they verify the treatment time as a notable factor for acupuncture studies.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
KEYWORDS:
Acupuncture analgesia, Cerebral blood flow, Frequency, Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation




PLoS One. 2014 Apr 14;9(4):e94368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094368. eCollection 2014.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Regulates Organ Blood Flow and Apoptosis during Controlled Hypotension in Dogs.
Zhang L, Shao X, Zhou C, Guo X, Jin L, Lian L, Yu X, Dong Z, Mo Y, Fang J.
Author information


Abstract
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used in clinical practice for alleviating pains and physiological disorders. It has been reported that TENS could counteract the ischemic injury happened in some vital organs. To determine the protective effect of TENS on internal organs during CH in dogs, target hypotension was maintained for 60 min at 50% of the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). The perfusion to the brain, liver, stomach, and kidney was recorded and apoptosis within these organs was observed. Results showed that when arriving at the target MAP, and during the maintaining stage for 10 min, perfusion to the stomach and liver in the CH+TENS group was much higher than in the CH group (P<0.05). Perfusion to the cerebral cortex greatly declined in both the controlled pressure groups when compared with the general anesthesia (GA) group (P<0.05). After withdrawing CH, the hepatic blood flow in both the CH and CH+TENS groups, and the gastric and cerebral cortical blood flow in the CH+TENS group, were rapidly increased. By the end of MAP restoration, gastric blood flow in the CH group was still low. At 72 h after applying CH, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in stomach and kidney tissue from the CH group were significantly increased compared with those in the GA group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in TUNEL-positive cells in the liver and hippocampus among the three groups. Our results demonstrated that CH with a 50% MAP level could cause lower perfusion to the liver, stomach, cerebral cortex, and kidney, with apoptosis subsequently occurring in the stomach and kidney. TENS combined GA is able to improve the blood flow to the liver, stomach, and reduce the apoptosis in the stomach and kidney.




Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2013 Dec;33(12):1621-5.
[Effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation on stress in brain surgery with propofol target controlled infusion general anesthesia].
[Article in Chinese]
Wu Q, Mo YC, Huang LP, Luo L, Wang JL.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To study the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on stress who received propofol target controlled infusion (TCI) general anesthesia in brain surgery.
METHODS:
Totally 40 neurosurgical patients of I-II grade (ASA grading) in our hospital were randomly divided into the TAES group (T group) and the control group (C group), 20 in each group. All patients received intravenous anesthesia by propofol TCI. The TAES intervention was adopted in those of C group. Electrodes were only applied to corresponding acupoints without electric stimulation. The arterial blood was withdrawn before TAES (T0), before anesthesia (T1), before cutting (T2), at 60 min after encephalic incision (T3), immediately after incisions suture (T4), at about 10 min after removing tracheal catheters (T5) to detect beta-endorphin (beta-EP), cortisol (COR), adrenalin (E), blood sugar (Glu). The heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded. The total time of surgery, anesthesia, total infusion amount, blood lost amount, and urine amount were recorded.
RESULTS:
In both groups, HR, MAP, COR, and E at T2 were lower than at T0 significantly (P < 0.05). beta-EP in group C at T2 was lower than at T0 significantly (P < 0.05). HR, MAP, COR in group C at T3 were higher than at T0 significantly (P < 0.05). HR, MAP, E, and Glu in group C at T4 and T5 were higher than at T0 significantly (P < 0.05). beta-EP in group T at T1 and T3 were higher than at T0 significantly (P < 0.05). HR, COR, E, Glu, and beta-EP in group T at T4 and T5 were higher than at T0 significantly (P < 0.05). Between groups, comparing with the time point T0, the amplitude of variation of MAP, COR, and E at T2 in group C were significantly less (P < 0.05); the amplitude of variation of HR, MAP, and COR at T3 in group C were less significantly, when compared with the time point T0 (P < 0.05); the amplitude of variation of HR, MAP, COR, E, and Glu at T4 and T5 in group C were less significantly, when compared with the time point T0 (P < 0.05). When comparing the two groups, the amplitude of variation of beta-EP at time points of T1, T3, T4, and T5 in group T were larger than at T0 in group C (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:
TAES could reduce stress and stabilize the internal environment when used in brain surgery with propofol TCI general anesthesia.




J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Jun;19(6):558-63. doi: 10.1089/acm.2012.0097. Epub 2012 Dec 4.
Changes in skin impedance and heart rate variability with application of Acu-TENS to BL 13 (Feishu).
Ngai SP1, Jones AY.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To investigate the change of skin impedance of acupoints along the Lung meridian in response to transcutaneous electrical nervous stimulation over an acupoint (Acu-TENS) over BL13 (Feishu).
DESIGN:
This was a double-blinded, randomized, controlled crossover study.
SETTINGS/LOCATION:
The study was conducted in a laboratory.
SUBJECTS:
Eighteen (18) healthy individuals comprised the study subjects.
INTERVENTIONS:
The intervention was a session of 45-minute Acu-TENS (application of TENS on BL13, Feishu) or placebo-TENS (similar to Acu-TENS but without electrical output).
OUTCOME MEASURES:
Skin impedance at 10 acupoints on the Lung meridian was recorded before and after the 45-minute intervention period. Heart rate variability during the intervention was analyzed from continuous heart rate monitoring.
RESULTS:
Skin impedance at all acupoints along the lung meridian decreased significantly after Acu-TENS, when compared to placebo-TENS (p<0.05). A significant reduction in sympathetic activity was also observed after Acu-TENS (p=0.012).
CONCLUSIONS:
Acu-TENS appears to modify skin impedance of acupoints along a related meridian and possibly modulates sympathovagal balance.




BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Apr 15;13:84. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-84.
Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study.
Chu H, Li MH, Huang YC, Lee SY.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS.
METHODS:
Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6 ± 0.9 years, height: 172.5 ± 1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3 ± 1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS + SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration).
RESULTS:
Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but parasympathetic parameters decreased (p < 0.05). After TENS treatment, SS symptom severity significantly decreased and the subjects were more able to concentrate and made fewer cognitive test errors (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Sympathetic activity increased and parasympathetic activity decreased after simulator exposure. TENS was effective in reducing SS symptoms and alleviating cognitive impairment.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:
Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: http://ACTRN12612001172897.




Acupunct Med. 2014 Oct 10. pii: acupmed-2014-010572. doi: 10.1136/acupmed-2014-010572. [Epub ahead of print]
Effect of transcutaneous electrical acupuncture point stimulation on endometrial receptivity in women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer: a single-blind prospective randomised controlled trial.
Shuai Z1, Lian F2, Li P3, Yang W2.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupuncture point stimulation (TEAS) on endometrial HOXA10 protein expression and three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound parameters as markers of endometrial receptivity in women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET).
METHODS:
A total of 68 women undergoing FET were randomised to receive TEAS or mock TEAS at acupuncture points CV3, CV4 and SP6 and Zigong bilaterally. Both groups had six sessions per cycle for three menstrual cycles prior to the scheduled FET. Each session lasted 30 min and was repeated every other day. 3D power Doppler ultrasound parameters, HOXA10 protein expression and rates of embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth were compared.
RESULTS:
There were no significant differences between the two groups in endometrial thickness or endometrial volume. The ultrasonographic endometrial triple-line pattern was present more often in the TEAS group (p=0.002). The TEAS group had a greater endometrial and subendometrial vascularisation index (VI) than the mock TEAS group (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) on 3D ultrasound and increased endometrial HOXA10 expression (p=0.001) immediately prior to FET. Subsequently, the rates of embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were all higher in the TEAS group than in the mock TEAS group (p=0.024, p=0.038 and p=0.033, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS:
In patients undergoing FET, TEAS may have beneficial effects on endometrial HOXA10 expression and ultrasound markers of endometrial receptivity. These findings may explain the improvement in clinical outcome of FET associated with the use of TEAS.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:
ChiCTR-TRC-14004448




PLoS One. 2014 Oct 27;9(10):e111100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111100. eCollection 2014.
Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation Triggers Melatonin Secretion and Is Antidepressive in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.
Li S1, Zhai X2, Rong P2, McCabe MF3, Zhao J2, Ben H2, Wang X4, Wang S5.
Author information


Abstract
Decreased circulating melatonin is implicated in depression. We recently found that Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF, fa/fa) develop depression-like behaviors and that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is antidepressive in ZDF rats. Here we studied whether the ZDF rats could be used as a depression rodent model and whether the antidepressive effect of taVNS is mediated through modulation of melatonin secretion. Adult male ZDF and Zucker lean (ZL, fa/+) littermates were used. 30 min-taVNS procedures (2/15 Hz, 2 mA) were administered once daily under anesthesia for 34 consecutive days in pineal intact ZDF (n = 8) and ZL (n = 6) rats, as well as in pinealectomized ZDF rats (n = 8). Forced swimming test (FST) was used to determine depression-like behavior and ELISA to detect plasma melatonin concentration on day 35. We found that naïve ZDF rats had a longer immobility time in FST and that long-term (34 days) taVNS treatment ameliorated the depression-like behavior. In both pineal intact and pinealectomized ZDF rats, taVNS induced acute melatonin secretion, both during and after the taVNS session. A low melatonin level is related to the poor FST performance in ZDF rats (R = -0.544) in contrast to ZL rats (R = 0.247). In conclusion, our results show that ZDF rats are ideal candidates of innate depression and that taVNS is antidepressive through triggering melatonin secretion and increasing its production.




PLoS One. 2014 Apr 14;9(4):e94368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094368. eCollection 2014.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation regulates organ blood flow and apoptosis during controlled hypotension in dogs.
Zhang L1, Shao X1, Zhou C1, Guo X1, Jin L1, Lian L1, Yu X1, Dong Z1, Mo Y1, Fang J1.
Author information


Abstract
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used in clinical practice for alleviating pains and physiological disorders. It has been reported that TENS could counteract the ischemic injury happened in some vital organs. To determine the protective effect of TENS on internal organs during CH in dogs, target hypotension was maintained for 60 min at 50% of the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). The perfusion to the brain, liver, stomach, and kidney was recorded and apoptosis within these organs was observed. Results showed that when arriving at the target MAP, and during the maintaining stage for 10 min, perfusion to the stomach and liver in the CH+TENS group was much higher than in the CH group (P<0.05). Perfusion to the cerebral cortex greatly declined in both the controlled pressure groups when compared with the general anesthesia (GA) group (P<0.05). After withdrawing CH, the hepatic blood flow in both the CH and CH+TENS groups, and the gastric and cerebral cortical blood flow in the CH+TENS group, were rapidly increased. By the end of MAP restoration, gastric blood flow in the CH group was still low. At 72 h after applying CH, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in stomach and kidney tissue from the CH group were significantly increased compared with those in the GA group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in TUNEL-positive cells in the liver and hippocampus among the three groups. Our results demonstrated that CH with a 50% MAP level could cause lower perfusion to the liver, stomach, cerebral cortex, and kidney, with apoptosis subsequently occurring in the stomach and kidney. TENS combined GA is able to improve the blood flow to the liver, stomach, and reduce the apoptosis in the stomach and kidney.



PLoS One. 2015 Feb 2;10(2):e0116976. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116976.
Efficacy and Safety of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation to Treat Muscle Spasticity following Brain Injury: A Double-Blinded, Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial.
Zhao W1, Wang C2, Li Z2, Chen L3, Li J3, Cui W3, Ding S2, Xi Q2, Wang F2, Jia F2, Xiao S2, Guo Y2, Zhao Y4.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) to treat muscle spasticity after brain injury (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-11001310).
METHODS:
A total of 60 patients with muscle spasticity after brain injury were randomized to the following 3 groups: 100, 2, and 0 Hz (sham) TEAS. The acupoints Hegu (LI4)-Yuji (LU10) and Zusanli (ST36)-Chengshan (BL57) on the injured side were stimulated at 0, 2, or 100 Hz, 5 times per week for 4 weeks. The patients were followed up for 1 and 2 months after the treatments. The effects of the treatments on muscle spasticity at the wrist, thumb, the other 4 fingers, elbow, shoulder, knee, and ankle were evaluated by the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the effects on disability were assessed by the Disability Assessment Scale. The walking capability was evaluated by the Holden functional ambulation classification score. The overall performance was assessed by the Global Assessment Scale score and the improved Barthel Index. The safety of the treatments administered was also monitored.
RESULTS:
The wrist spasticity was significantly reduced from baseline at weeks 2, 3, and 4 of treatment and at the 1- and 2-month follow-up visits in the 100 Hz group (P < 0.01). Compared with 2 Hz or sham TEAS, 100 Hz TEAS decreased wrist spasticity at weeks 2, 3, and 4 of treatment and 1 month after treatment (P < 0.001). The other endpoints were not affected by the treatments. No treatment-emergent adverse events were reported during treatments and follow-up visits.
CONCLUSIONS:
TEAS appears to be a safe and effective therapy to relieve muscle spasticity after brain injury, although large-scale studies are required to further verify the findings.



Acupunct Med. 2015 Apr 29. pii: acupmed-2014-010749. doi: 10.1136/acupmed-2014-010749. [Epub ahead of print]
Intraoperative and postoperative anaesthetic and analgesic effect of multipoint transcutaneous electrical acupuncture stimulation combined with sufentanil anaesthesia in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy.
Liu X1, Li S1, Wang B2, An L1, Ren X3, Wu H4.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To investigate the anaesthetic and analgesic effect of multipoint transcutaneous electrical acupuncture stimulation (TEAS) during supratentorial tumour resection for postoperative recovery and side effects.
METHODS:
In a blinded clinical trial, 92 patients scheduled for supratentorial craniotomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into either a multipoint TEAS (n=46) or a sham TEAS group (n=46). All patients received total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and sufentanil. The target concentration of sufentanil was adjusted and recorded according to mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and bispectral index (BIS). Patients in the TEAS group received TEAS 30 min before anaesthesia induction and this was maintained throughout the operation at four pairs of acupuncture points. Postoperative pain, recovery and side effects were evaluated.
RESULTS:
Eighty-eight patients completed the study. Continuous monitoring of MAP, HR and BIS showed stable values with no significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05). Sufentanil target plasma concentration in TEAS patients was significantly lower at some time points during supratentorial craniotomy, and total sufentanil consumption was significantly higher in the sham group (p<0.05). Postoperative recovery and pain were significantly improved by TEAS (p<0.001), without the postoperative side effects.
CONCLUSIONS:
Multipoint TEAS at both proximal and distal points combined with TIVA can significantly decrease intraoperative sufentanil requirements, increase pain relief on postoperative day 1 and improve postoperative recovery of patients during supratentorial tumour resection, with no significant increase of side effects. These findings suggest that multipoint TEAS may be clinically effective as an adjunct to analgesia in intraoperative anaesthesia and postoperative pain treatment and may speed recovery.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:
Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number ChiCTR-TRC-10001078).
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.


Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr 2. pii: S0006-3223(15)00274-7. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.03.025. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Modulates Default Mode Network in Major Depressive Disorder.
Fang J1, Rong P2, Hong Y3, Fan Y3, Liu J3, Wang H3, Zhang G3, Chen X4, Shi S3, Wang L5, Liu R6, Hwang J4, Li Z7, Tao J8, Wang Y9, Zhu B6, Kong J4.
Author information


Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Depression is the most common form of mental disorder in community and health care settings and current treatments are far from satisfactory. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a Food and Drug Administration approved somatic treatment for treatment-resistant depression. However, the involvement of surgery has limited VNS only to patients who have failed to respond to multiple treatment options. Transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) is a relatively new, noninvasive VNS method based on the rationale that there is afferent/efferent vagus nerve distribution on the surface of the ear. The safe and low-cost characteristics of tVNS have the potential to significantly expand the clinical application of VNS.
METHODS:
In this study, we investigated how tVNS can modulate the default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity (FC) in mild or moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Forty-nine MDD patients were recruited and received tVNS or sham tVNS (stVNS) treatments.
RESULTS:
Thirty-four patients completed the study and were included in data analysis. After 1 month of tVNS treatment, the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score reduced significantly in the tVNS group as compared with the stVNS group. The FC between the DMN and anterior insula and parahippocampus decreased; the FC between the DMN and precuneus and orbital prefrontal cortex increased compared with stVNS. All these FC increases are also associated with 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale reduction.
CONCLUSIONS:
tVNS can significantly modulate the DMN FC of MDD patients; our results provide insights to elucidate the brain mechanism of tVNS treatment for MDD patients.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.



Pain Med. 2015 May;16(5):839-848. doi: 10.1111/pme.12738.
Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation for the Treatment of Withdrawal Syndrome in Heroin Addicts.
Ma D1,2, Han JS1,2, Diao QH3, Deng GF3, Ping XJ1,2, Jin WJ1,2, Wu LZ1,2, Cui CL1,2, Li XD4.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To assess the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) for the treatment of withdrawal syndrome in heroin addicts.
METHODS:
A total of 63 male heroin addicts with withdrawal score higher than 20 were recruited in the Detoxification Center of Zhongshan city, Guangdong province, China. They were randomly distributed into two groups: TEAS group (n = 31) received TEAS by using a Han's acupoint nerve stimulator (HANS) model 200A with two output channels, 2-3 sessions per day, 30 minutes per session for 10 consecutive days. Electrical stimulation of alternating frequencies of 2- and 100- Hz with 3 second each, and with intensity of 10-15 mA was applied on Hegu (LI-4) and Laogong (PC-8) points on one hand, and Neiguan (PC-6) and Waiguan (SJ-5) points on the other forearm via electroconductive skin pads of 4 cm × 4 cm in size. The control group (n = 32) was treated with similar procedure except that the leads of the output of the stimulator was disconnected. Assessments of the severity of the withdrawal syndrome were conducted one day before and on each day during the whole treatment period of 10 days. Buprenorphin of 1 mg per day sublingually was provided to all subjects in the first two days, and then to those with withdrawal score over 20 in the following days.
RESULTS:
The TEAS treatment dramatically alleviated the withdrawal syndrome during heroin detoxification. No significant difference was found in withdrawal scores between the two groups at the beginning of the observation. Withdrawal scores showed a more marked drop in TEAS group than the control starting from the second day, and maintained at a lower level for the whole course of treatment. The area under the curve of withdrawal score in TEAS group was only 40% of that in the control (P < 0.001, two way repeated measures analysis of variance), and the requirement of buprenorphine was only 10% of that in the control. No adverse effects were observed in either group.
CONCLUSION:
TEAS of 2/100 Hz for 10 days in abrupt abstinence of the heroin addicts resulted in a marked reduction of the withdrawal syndrome as well as a reduced requirement for rescue opioids.
© 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine.



Acupunct Med. 2015 Jun 23. pii: acupmed-2014-010752. doi: 10.1136/acupmed-2014-010752. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on rats with the third lumbar vertebrae transverse process syndrome.
Li H1, Shang XJ2, Dong QR3.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at local or distant acupuncture points in a rat model of the third lumbar vertebrae transverse process syndrome.
METHODS:
Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, model, model plus local acupuncture point stimulation at BL23 (model+LAS) and model plus distant acupuncture point stimulation at ST36 (model+DAS) groups. All rats except controls underwent surgical third lumbar vertebrae transverse process syndrome modelling on day 2. Thereafter, rats in the model+LAS and model+DAS groups were treated daily with TENS for a total of six treatments (2/100 Hz, 30 min/day) from day 16 to day 29. Thermal pain thresholds were measured once a week during treatment and were continued until day 57, when local muscle tissue was sampled for RT-PCR and histopathological examination after haematoxylin and eosin staining. mRNA expression of interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined.
RESULTS:
Thermal pain thresholds of all model rats decreased relative to the control group. Both LAS and DAS significantly increased the thermal pain threshold at all but one point during the treatment period. Histopathological assessment revealed that the local muscle tissues around the third lumbar vertebrae transverse process recovered to some degree in both the model+LAS and model+DAS groups; however, LAS appeared to have a greater effect. mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS in the local muscle tissues was increased after modelling and attenuated in both model+LAS and model+DAS groups. The beneficial effect was greater after LAS than after DAS.
CONCLUSIONS:
TENS at both local (BL23) and distant (ST36) acupuncture points had a pain-relieving effect in rats with the third lumbar vertebrae transverse process syndrome, and LAS appeared to have greater anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects than DAS.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:
09073.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.



Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Apr 15;8(4):5972-7. eCollection 2015.
Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation at Jiaji points reduce abdominal pain after colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.
Chen Y1, Wu W1, Yao Y1, Yang Y1, Zhao Q1, Qiu L1.
Author information


Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at Jiaji acupuncture points has therapeutic potential for relieving viscera pain and opioid-related side effects. This prospective, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of TEAS on abdominal pain after colonoscopy.
METHODS:
Consecutive outpatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II underwent selective colonoscopy were randomly assigned into two groups for either TEAS or sham pretreatment. The primary outcomes were the incidence of abdominal pain after colonoscopy. The secondary outcomes included the incidence of abdominal distension, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), duration of PACU stay, and patient's satisfaction and acceptance.
RESULTS:
Among the 229 patients analyzed, fewer occurrence of post-procedural abdominal pain (11.4% vs 25.2%, P = 0.007) and distension (1.8% vs 7.8%, P = 0.032) were observed in TEAS group, when compared with the sham group. The duration of PACU stay was significant shortened in TEAS group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients' satisfaction score to medical service was higher (P < 0.001), and their acceptance to colonoscopy was improved (P = 0.011).
CONCLUSION:
Pretreatment with TEAS can reduce post-procedural discomfort, provide more efficient medical resources utilization, and improved patient's satisfaction and colonoscopy acceptance.



J Altern Complement Med. 2015 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation on Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.
Liu X1, Fan T1, Lan Y2, Dong S1, Fu J1, Mao B1.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the clinical effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation over acupoints (acu-TENS) on patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DESIGN:
Prospective, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Settings/Locations: Outpatient center of West China Hospital, Sichuan University.
PATIENTS:
Fifty patients with stable COPD enrolled in the study.
INTERVENTIONS:
Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the acu-TENS group (n=25), who underwent acu-TENS over acupoints of bilateral EX-B-1(Dingchuan), BL-13 (Feishu), BL-23 (Shenshu), ST-36 (Zusanli), and the placebo acu-TENS control group (n=25), who had the same electrode placement but no electrical output. Treatments were performed for 40-minute sessions every 2 days for 4 weeks.
OUTCOME MEASURES:
Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, percentage predicted (FEV1% predicted); forced vital capacity, percentage predicted (FVC% predicted), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and oxygen saturation (SpO2), COPD assessment test (CAT), and Dyspnea Visual Analogue Scale (DVAS) were assessed before and after the intervention.
RESULTS:
Compared to control group, FEV1% predicted was improved and CAT score was decreased significantly in the acu-TENS group after treatment (p<0.05). The DVAS score decreased significantly in the acu-TENS group (p=0.039), with a slight but insignificant improve in 6MWD, SpO2, and FVC% predicted after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS:
Acu-TENS over acupoints of bilateral EX-B-1 (Dingchuan), BL-13 (Feishu), BL-23 (Shenshu), and ST-36 (Zusanli) improved FEV1% predicted and reduced DVAS and CAT scores on patients with stable COPD. This may be a novel treatment strategy in COPD.



Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015 Aug 6;194:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2015.07.009. [Epub ahead of print]
Effectiveness of complementary pain treatment for women with deep endometriosis through Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): randomized controlled trial.
Mira TA1, Giraldo PC1, Yela DA1, Benetti-Pinto CL2.
Author information


Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate TENS effectiveness as a complementary treatment of chronic pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia in women with deep endometriosis.
STUDY DESIGN:
This randomized controlled trial was performed in a tertiary health care center, including twenty-two women with deep endometriosis undergoing hormone therapy with persistent pelvic pain and/or deep dyspareunia. This study was registered in the Brazilian Record of Clinical Trials (ReBEC), under n RBR-3rndh6. TENS application for 8 weeks followed a randomized allocation into two groups: Group 1 - acupuncture-like TENS (Frequency: 8Hz, pulse duration: 250μs) - VIF (n=11) and Group 2 - self-applied TENS (Frequency: 85Hz, pulse duration: 75μs) (n=11). The intensity applied was "strong, but comfortable". We evaluated patients before and after treatment by the use of the Visual Analogue Scale, Deep Dyspareunia Scale and Endometriosis Quality of Life Questionnaire. We used the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests to compare before and after treatment conditions.
RESULTS:
Despite the use of hormone therapy for 1.65±2.08 years, the 22 women with deep endometriosis sustained pelvic pain complaints (VAS=5.95±2.13 and 2.45±2.42, p<.001) and/or deep dyspareunia (DDS=2.29±0.46 and 1.20±1.01, p=.001). We observed significant improvement for chronic pelvic pain, deep dyspareunia and quality of life by the use of TENS. Both application types of TENS were effective for improving the evaluated types of pain.
CONCLUSIONS:
Both resources (acupuncture-like TENS and self-applied TENS) demonstrated effectiveness as a complementary treatment of pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia, improving quality of life in women with deep endometriosis regardless of the device used for treatment.


J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Jan;28(1):76-81. doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.76. Epub 2016 Jan 30.
Effect of low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of TE5 (waiguan) and PC6 (neiguan) acupoints on cold-induced pain.
Montenegro EJ1, Guimarães de Alencar G2, Rocha de Siqueira G1, Guerino MR1, Maia JN1, Araújo de Oliveira D1.
Author information


Abstract
[Purpose] This study assesse the effect of low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of theTE5 (waiguan) and PC6 (neiguan) acupoints on cold-induced pain. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-eight subjects were divided by convenience into three groups: TENS with electrodes of 1 cm(2) area, TENS with electrodes of area 15 cm(2) and a placebo group. The study consisted of three phases: cold-induced pain without electroanalgesia, cold-induced pain with electroanalgesia or placebo, and cold-induced pain post-electroanalgesia or placebo. [Results] Acupuncture like TENS increased the pain threshold latency during treatment (45.7 ± 11.7s) compared to pre-treatment (30.9 ± 8.9s) in the TENS group with 1 cm(2) electrodes. In the TENS group with 15 cm(2) electrodes, the pain threshold latency increased at post-treatment (36.2 ± 12.9s) compared to pre-treatment (25.5 ± 7.4s). The placebo group showed no significant changes. The group with 1 cm(2) electrodes showed a significantly higher pain threshold latency (45.7 ± 11.7s) than the other two groups. At post-treatment, the pain threshold latencies of both the 1 cm(2) (39.4 ± 11.5s) and 15 cm(2) (36.2 ± 12.9s) TENS group were higher than that of the placebo group (22.4 ± 7.4s). [Conclusion] Acupuncture like TENS applied to PC6 and TE5 acupoints increased the pain threshold latency. The pain intensity was reduced by TENS with an electrode area of 1 cm(2).


J Tradit Chin Med. 2016 Feb;36(1):51-6.
Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation through acupoints of Pucan (BL 61) and Shenmai (BL 62) on intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma: a randomized controlled trial.
Yeh TY, Lin JC, Liu CF.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) through acupoints on the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma.
METHODS:
A single-blinded, randomized experimental design study was conducted. Patients from the North of Taipei Ophthalmology outpatient department diagnosed with intraocular hypertension were selected and were further enrolled if they met the research subject criteria. The patients who met all criteria, and who met no exclusion criteria became the participants. Participants were randomly assigned into the treated group, wherein the TENS electrodes (Qing Ming Medical Device Co., Ltd., New Taipei City, China) were applied with direct current (DC) on the acupoints Pucan (BL 61) and Shenmai (BL 62) for 20 min. The control group received no TENS electrode treatments. Measurements of IOP were taken four times using a pneumotonometer (Clinico Co., Ltd., New Taipei City, China), before, immediately after, 30 min after, and 60 min after TENS electrode treatments.
RESULTS:
Eighty-two participants completed the experiment. IOP decreased more in the group treated with DC (P < 0.01) than in the control group. The IOPs were not affected by the age of the patients and their usage of medications.
CONCLUSION:
TENS of acupoints of Pucan (BL 61) and Shenmai (BL 62) could significantly reduce the IOP in patients with glaucoma.



Integr Cancer Ther. 2016 Apr 29. pii: 1534735415627926. [Epub ahead of print]
Phase 2 Study of Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.
Wong R1, Major P2, Sagar S2.
Author information


Abstract
A prospective phase 2 study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of acupuncture-like transcutaneous nerve stimulation (ALTENS) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Eligible cancer patients had a < 2 ECOG performance score, received neurotoxic chemotherapy, and developed CIPN symptoms for > two months. Randomization was used to eliminate bias in patient selection for ALTENS and was not to compare the effectiveness between the two treatments.ALTENS treatments were delivered using Codetron units. Bilateral acupuncture points included LI4 and LIV3, plus LI11 or ST36 were stimulated. Acupuncture treatments were administered to CV6, SP6, ST6, LI11, Bafeng, Baxie and selective Jing points bilaterally. Twelve treatments were delivered twice weekly over 6 to 8 weeks.The Modified Total Neuropathy Score (mTNS), Numbness Score, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS) were assessed at baseline, treatment completion, plus at 3 and 6 months follow-up. The primary study endpoint was mTNS score at 6 months.We planned to recruit 23 patients into each group. After 30 patients were recruited, 2 were lost to follow-up at 3 months in the ALTENS group and 3 in the acupuncture group. The research team decided to recruit all remaining consecutive patients only to the ALTENS group to ensure an adequate evaluation of ALTENS, the primary object of evaluation.There were 27 patients in the ALTENS group, with an average symptom duration of 10 months after chemotherapy. Twenty four and 23 patients completed the 3 and 6 month follow-up respectively. The median mTNS scores were 7.1, 4.0, 3.6 and 3.1 at baseline, treatment completion, 3 and 6 months follow-up, respectively. One-way ANOVA analysis showed a significant improvement in mTNS scores (p<0.001) at 6 months. Numbness scores were also significantly improved at 6 months. ESAS pain scores and perception of well-being scores analyses were inconclusive. There were no significant reported side effects of ALTENS.There were only 13 patients in the acupuncture group and the number was insufficient for either an independent or a comparative analysis.The results of this study suggests that ALTENS significantly reduces the mTNS scores and numbness in patients suffering from CIPN symptoms.



Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2016 Aug 23. pii: S1871-4021(16)30178-3. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2016.08.016. [Epub ahead of print]
The influence of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation parameters on the level of pain perceived by participants with painful diabetic neuropathy: A crossover study.
Upton GA1, Tinley P2, Al-Aubaidy H3, Crawford R4.
Author information


Abstract
AIMS:
This pilot study aimed to investigate and compare the perceived pain relief effectiveness of two different modes of TENS in people with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN).
METHODS:
A cross-over study was conducted at Charles Sturt University, Orange. Five participants with PDN were assessed with a McGill Pain Questionnaire before and after each of the two TENS treatments. Participants were randomly allocated to Traditional TENS (80Hz, 200ms) or Acupuncture-like TENS (2Hz, 200ms) and the treatments were applied daily for 30min over ten days. Following a seven day washout period, the alternate mode of TENS was carried out using the same method. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to statistically analyse the results.
RESULTS:
All five participants reported personally meaningful pain relief during one or both of the TENS treatments. The Wilcoxon signed rank testing showed no statistical significance, p=1, likely due to the small sample size. Acupuncture-like TENS had a large effect size (z=-1.625, r=0.514), whilst Traditional TENS produced a medium effect size (z=-1.214, r=0.384). No adverse effects were reported.
CONCLUSION:
Acupuncture-like TENS may be more effective for PDN than traditional TENS. A larger scale replication of this pilot study is warranted.




J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Sep;10(9):YC01-YC04. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
The Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation (TEAS) on Fatigue in Haemodialysis Patients.
Hadadian F1, Sohrabi N2, Farokhpayam M3, Farokhpayam H3, Towhidi F4, Fayazi S5, Soroush A6, Abdi A7.
Author information


Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Fatigue is one of the most common symptom in End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving haemodialysis treatment. In recent years, researchers investigated the role of alternative medicine methods such as acupuncture in treatment of the chronic disease; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the fatigue of haemodialysis patients.
AIM:
To evaluate the effects of Trans Cutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation (TEAS) on fatigue among ESRD patients receiving haemodialysis treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This randomized clinical trial was conducted over a five month, in Kermanshah-Iran haemodialysis centers in 2009. Fifty six patients who had undergone haemodialysis and meeting the inclusion criteria, were divided into two groups by simple random sampling; TEAS (28 cases) and TEAS-Sham group (28 cases). The data was gathered through the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), entered into SPSS-16 software and analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics.
RESULTS:
Out of 56, 38 patients (67.9%) were male and 45 (80.4%) were married. The mean and standard deviation of age were 52.29±15.26 years. The inferential tests showed no differences in the clinical and the demographic characteristics of patients among two groups (p > 0.05). The mean rank of fatigue score in TEAS and TEAS-Sham groups was 30.68 and 26.32 respectively (p=0.317) at the first of study. The results of the Mann-Whitney U-test indicated that there were significant differences between the TEAS and Sham groups after intervention (p = 0.002).
CONCLUSION:
Findings of the present study revealed that application of the TEAS on these acupoints had produced a better recovery rate of fatigue in TEAS group than Sham group after a course of ten session intervention. So, it is suggested that this plan be provided to the haemodialysis patients.