Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Yan YS), First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China; WANG Chu-huai Department of Rehabilitation, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Yan YS), First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China; LIAO Xin-xue Department of Cardiology, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Yan YS), First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China; YAN Ying-shuo ; HU Yue-hua Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Yan YS), First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China; RAO Zhong-dong Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Yan YS), First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China; WEN Ming Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Yan YS), First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China; ZENG Xiao-xiang Zhuhai People′s Hospital, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China; LAI Xin-sheng College of Acupuncture and Moxibustion of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510405, China

Correspondence to:
RUAN Jing-wen  Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China  (Tel:86-20-87755766-8390 Fax:86-20-87332698 Email:ruanjw@163.com )
LAI Xin-sheng, College of Acupuncture and Moxibustion of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510405, China
electroacupuncture·chronic insomnia·sleep quality·sleep architecture·safety

 Due to the quick rhythm of life and work pressure, more and more people suffer from sleep quality problems. In this study, we investigated the effect of electroacupuncture on sleep quality of chronic insomniacs and the safety of electroacupuncture therapy. Methods  Four courses of electroacupuncture treatment were applied to 47 patients. With pre-treatment and post-treatment self-control statistical method, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores were used for evaluating sleep quality. Polysomnogram was used for detecting insomniacs′ changes in sleep architecture. The safety of electroacupuncture was evaluated by monitoring the self-designed adverse events and side effects during treatment and post-treatment. Results  Electroacupuncture considerably improved insomniacs′ sleep quality and social function during the daytime. Electroacupuncture had certain repairing effect on the disruption in sleep architecture. At the same time, electroacupuncture prolonged slow wave sleep (SWS) time and relatively rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) time. There was no hangover, addiction or decrements in vigilance during the daytime (incidence rate was 0). However, insomnia rebound rate was about 23% within one month.  Conclusions  These results suggest that electroacupuncture has beneficial effect on sleep quality improvement in the patients with chronic insomnia, which may be associated with repairing sleep architecture, reconstructing sleep continuity, as well as prolonging SWS time and REM sleep time. Electroacupuncture treatment for chronic insomnia is safe. Therefore, electroacupuncture therapy could be a promising avenue of treatment for chronic insomnia.




Electroacupuncture treatment of chronic insomniacs
RUAN Jing-wen, WANG Chu-huai, LIAO Xin-xue, YAN Ying-shuo, HU Yue-hua, RAO Zhong-dong, WEN Ming, ZENG Xiao-xiang, LAI Xin-sheng
RUAN Jing-wen
This study was supported by : Science(No. 2004B3300102) Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Provinceand Research Grant of the Administrative Bureau of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Guangdong Province(No. 1040058)
Keywords:
Abstract:

Background

2014/465760. Epub 2014 Jun 15.
Differential activation patterns of FMRI in sleep-deprived brain: restoring effects of acupuncture.
Gao L1, Zhang M1, Gong H2, Bai L3, Dai XJ2, Min Y4, Zhou F2.
Author information:
1Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710061, China. 2Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330006, China. 3The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Ministry of Education, China. 4Acupuncture & Rehabilitation Department, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330006, China.
Abstract
Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD). Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males) were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual's normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group) and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group) or sham (Sham group). The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.



Acupuncture Beats Drug For Sleep
on 07 February 2015.

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Acupuncture benefits sleep and reduces insomnia. Researchers conducted a single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled investigation comparing acupuncture with sham acupuncture and estazolam, a benzodiazepine medication

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:465760. doi: 10.1155/

sleepi1ssc
True (verum) acupuncture produced significantly superior patient outcomes for insomnia patients including improvements in sleep quality and total sleep time. 
A two month follow-up to the treatment regime demonstrates that acupuncture is superior to sham acupuncture and estazolam for the improvement of sleep quality. True acupuncture also produced superior clinical results for sleep efficiency and daytime functioning. Acupuncture improved daytime functioning including: fatigue reduction, reduced sleepiness, increased alertness and concentration, reduced mood disturbances.
The researchers adhered to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) manual acupuncture techniques and attribute the positive patient outcomes to following traditional treatment protocol guidelines. According to TCM principles, de qi is an indication of the effectiveness of acupuncture. The research team ensured that de qi was achieved at most of the acupuncture points. De qi is often subjectively reported as fullness or a radiating sensation felt at acupuncture points during needling. It is also reported as a tugging or pulling motion by acupuncturists applying the needles. The researchers note that de qi was achieved at 85% of the acupuncture points and that this may have been the reason for the effectiveness of the acupuncture.
Reporting on TCM theory concerning healthy sleep, the researchers note that sleep is regarded as a cycle. There is an energetic daytime functioning of individuals and a restful nocturnal sleep portion of the cycle. If the cycle is broken, there may be low spiritedness in the daytime and hyperarousal states in the nighttime. The function of acupuncture is to restore the normal cycle. Acupuncture points used in the study were classically based selections from TCM:
Shenting (DU24)
  • Sishencong (EX-HN1)
  • Baihui (DU20)
  • Shenmen (HT7)
  • Sanyinjiao (SP6)
  • Acupuncture not only restored nighttime sleep but also improved daytime energetics. In contrast, patients in the estazolam medication group experienced adverse effects. This included daytime sleepiness that typically ceased by midday. The researchers note, “The trial implied that verum acupuncture was superior in improving sleep quality and daytime functioning of primary insomnia compared with estazolam and sham acupuncture.” The researchers also note that true acupuncture increased total sleep time and “improved sleep quality (SQ) and vitality (VT), decreased daytime dysfunction (DD) and sleepiness (ESS score).”
    A related insomnia study had similar conclusions. Researchers compared acupuncture combined with herbal medicine to estazolam intake. Acupuncture combined with herbs demonstrated significantly superior patient outcomes to the medication group.
    sleepi1sschtub
    In addition, estazolam produced serious adverse effects including headaches, fatigue, dry mouth and dizziness. Acupuncture did not produce any serious adverse effects.
    The herbal medicine used in the study was the herbal formula Shen Zao An Shen Tang. The acupuncture points used in the study were:
    Shenmen (HT7)
  • Sanyinjiao (SP6)
  • Sishencong (EX-HN1)
  • Shenting (DU24)
  • Fengchi (GB20)
  • Xinshu (BL15)
  • Pishu (BL20)
  • Neiguan (PC6)
  • Zusanli (ST36)
  • Zhaohai (KI6)
  • A total of 54.8% of the acupuncture plus herbal medicine patients completely recovered and another 35.5% demonstrated significant improvements. The estazolam group had a 32.3% recovery rate and another 22.5% demonstrated significant improvements. The failure rate of the acupuncture plus herbs group was 3.2% and the failure rate of the estazolam group was 25.8%. This study was similar to the aforementioned research in acupuncture point selection. Both investigations used the following acupuncture points:
    • Shenmen (HT7)
    • Sanyinjiao (SP6)
    • Sishencong (EX-HN1)
    • Shenting (DU24)
    Another research team investigated insomnia due to depression. Acupuncture points DU20 (Baihui) and Yintang were used on all patients in the study. One group of patients received additional acupuncture needling at:
    • Lieque (LU7)
    • Zhaohai (KI6)
    • Xinshu (UB15)
    Another group of patients received additional acupuncture needling at Si Guan (LI4, LV3). Both groups demonstrated significant reductions in insomnia but the LU7, KI6, UB15 group demonstrated the most improvement.
    References: Guo, Jing, Lin-Peng Wang, Cun-Zhi Liu, Jie Zhang, Gui-Ling Wang, Jing-Hong Yi, Jin-Lian Cheng, and R. Musil. "Efficacy of acupuncture for primary insomnia: a randomized controlled clinical trial." Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur 57, no. 4 (2014): 31-32.
    Kou, Ji-you, Yan Wei, Xin Tong, and Long Yang. "Effect of combined acupuncture and Shen Zao An Shen Tang on sleep quality of insomnia patients due to deficiency of the heart and spleen." Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science 12, no. 2 (2014): 96-100.
    Wen, Xiuyun, Qian Wu, Jingshu Du, and Wenbin Fu. "Effect of compatibility of Lie Que (LU7) and Zhao Hai (KI6) on insomnia caused by depression: a randomized controlled trial." Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Engineering 145 (2014): 227.
    - See more at: http://www.healthcmi.com/Acupuncture-Continuing-Education-News/1426-acupuncture-beats-drug-for-sleep#sthash.DkJ8EjHZ.dpuf


    Menopause. 2016 Nov 21. [Epub ahead of print]
    Comparative effectiveness of electro-acupuncture versus gabapentin for sleep disturbances in breast cancer survivors with hot flashes: a randomized trial.
    Garland SN1, Xie SX, Li Q, Seluzicki C, Basal C, Mao JJ.
    Author information


    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE:
    Sleep disturbance is a major consequence of hot flashes among breast cancer survivors. This study evaluated the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) versus gabapentin (GP) for sleep disturbances among breast cancer survivors experiencing daily hot flashes.
    METHODS:
    We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial involving 58 breast cancer survivors experiencing bothersome hot flashes at least two times per day. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of EA or daily GP (total dose of 900 mg/d). The primary outcome was change in the total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score between groups at week 8. Secondary outcomes include specific PSQI domains.
    RESULTS:
    By the end of treatment at week 8, the mean reduction in PSQI total score was significantly greater in the EA group than the GP group (-2.6 vs -0.8, P = 0.044). The EA also had improved sleep latency (-0.5 vs 0.1, P = 0.041) and sleep efficiency (-0.6 vs 0.0, P = 0.05) compared with the GP group. By week 8, the EA group had improved sleep duration, less sleep disturbance, shorter sleep latency, decreased daytime dysfunction, improved sleep efficiency, and better sleep quality (P < 0.05 for all) compared with baseline, whereas the GP group improved in duration and sleep quality only (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Among women experiencing hot flashes, the effects of EA are comparable with GP for improving sleep quality, specifically in the areas of sleep latency and efficiency. Larger randomized controlled trials with longer follow-ups are needed to confirm this preliminary finding.